Racial Profiling | New York Post

 

article on racial profiling

There is a substantial amount of literature written on racial profiling, however, few specifically address how African-American males, in particular, are disproportionately impacted by such discriminatory practices. Part II of this Article describes and substantiates that racial profiling is used against African-American males to stop and search. The article frames the issue of racial profiling in Jerome Skolnick’s classic work on the police perception of the symbolic assailant (the use of appearance and demeanor to determine if an individual is a threat), which in this case is prompted by an individual’s race. May 11,  · Racial profiling happens in ways many people don't realize. And it doesn't just hurt the victims -- it harms the rest of society, too.


This is why everyday racial profiling is so dangerous - CNN


Racial profiling is the act of suspecting article on racial profiling targeting a person of a certain race on the basis of observed or assumed characteristics or behavior of a racial or ethnic grouprather than on individual suspicion.

Criminal profiling, generally, as practiced by police, is the reliance on a group of characteristics they believe to be associated with crime. Examples of racial profiling are the use of race to determine which drivers to stop for minor traffic violations commonly referred to as 'driving while black or brown'or the use of race to determine which pedestrians to search for illegal contraband.

Besides such disproportionate searching of African Americansand members of other minority groups, [8] other examples of racial profiling by law enforcement in the U. According to Minnesota House of Representatives analyst Jim Cleary, "there appears to be at least two clearly distinguishable definitions of the term 'racial profiling': a narrow definition and a broad definition Under the broader definition, racial profiling occurs whenever police routinely use race as a factor that, along with an accumulation of other factors, causes an officer to react with suspicion and take action.

A study conducted by Domestic Human Rights Program of Amnesty International USA, found that racial profiling has increased since the September 11, terrorist attacks and that state laws cannot provide sufficient and consistent protections against racial profiling.

Sociologist Robert Staples emphasizes that racial profiling in the U. InPhiladelphia's court officials gave police legal authority to stop and detain any Negro freed or enslaved seen wandering about. Prior to U. In the late s racial profiling became politicized when police and other law enforcement fell under scrutiny for the disproportionate traffic stops of minority motorists.

Terry v. Ohio was the first challenge to article on racial profiling profiling in the United States in This case was about African American people who were thought to be stealing. InU. Brignoni- Ponce was decided. Felix Humberto Brignoni-Ponce article on racial profiling traveling in his vehicle and was stopped by border patrol agents because he appeared to be Mexican. Inthe U. Supreme Court ruled in U.

Armstrong that disparity in conviction rates is not unconstitutional in the absence of data that "similarly situated" defendants of another race were disparately prosecuted, [18] [19] overturning a 9th Circuit Court ruling that was based on "the presumption that people of all races commit all types of crimes — not with the premise that any type of crime is the exclusive province of any particular racial or ethnic group", waving away [20] challenges based on the Fourth Amendment of the U.

Constitution which guarantees the right to be safe from search and seizure without a warrant which is to be issued "upon probable cause"and the Fourteenth Amendment which requires that all citizens be treated equally under the law.

To date, there have been no known cases [ citation needed ] in which any U. This Supreme Court decision doesn't prohibit government agencies from enacting policies prohibiting it in the field by agents and employees. The Court also decided the case of Whren v. United States in Whren was arrested on felony drug charges after officers observed his truck sitting at an intersection for a long period of time before it failed to use its turn signal to drive away, and the police officers stopped his vehicle for the traffic violation.

It now maintains a website designed to be a central clearinghouse for police agencies, legislators, community leaders, social scientists, legal researchers, and journalists to access information about current data collection efforts, legislation and model policies, police-community initiatives, and methodological tools that can be used to collect and analyze racial profiling data. The website contains information on the background of data collection, jurisdictions currently collecting data, community groups, legislation that is pending and enacted in states across the country, article on racial profiling, and has information on planning and implementing data collection procedures, training officers in to implement these systems, and analyzing and reporting the data and results.

In AprilArizona enacted SBa law that would require law-enforcement officers to verify the citizenship of individuals they stop if they have reasonable suspicion that they may be in the United States illegally. The law states that "Any person who is arrested shall have the person's immigration status determined before the person is released". United States federal law requires that all immigrants who remain in the United States for more than 30 days register with the U.

According to SBlaw-enforcement officials may not consider "race, color, or national origin" in the enforcement of the law, except under the circumstances allowed under the United States and Arizona constitutions. Some states contain "stop and identify" laws that allow officers to detain suspected persons and ask for identification, and if there is a failure to provide identification punitive measures can be taken by the officer.

In earlya bill was introduced to Congress named "End Racial Profiling Act of " but lost support in the wake of the September 11th attacks. Texas, for example, requires all agencies to provide annual article on racial profiling to its Law Enforcement Commission. The requirement began on September 1,article on racial profiling, when the State of Texas passed a law to require all law enforcement agencies in the state to begin collecting certain data in connection to traffic or pedestrian stops beginning on January 1, Based on that data, the law mandated law enforcement agencies to submit a report to the law enforcement agencies' governing body beginning March 1, and each year thereafter no later than March 1.

Additionally, on January 1,all law enforcement agencies began submitting annual reports to the Texas State Law Enforcement Officers Standards and Education Commission. The submitted reports can be accessed on the Commission's website for public review. Supporters defend the practice of racial profiling by emphasizing article on racial profiling crime control model. In DecemberFernando Mateo, then president of the New York State Federation of Taxi Drivers, made pro-racial profiling remarks in the case of gun-shot taxi-cab driver: "You know sometimes it's good that we are racially profiled because the God's-honest truth is that 99 percent of the people that are robbing, stealing, killing these drivers are blacks and Hispanics.

I'm Hispanic and my father is black. My father is blacker than Al Sharpton. They emphasize that numerous factors such as race, interactions, and dress are used to determine if a person is involved in criminal activity and that race is not a sole factor in the decision to detain or question an individual. Proponents of racial profiling believe that inner city residents of Hispanic communities are subjected to racial profiling because of theories such as the "gang suppression model".

The "gang suppression model" is believed by some to article on racial profiling the basis for increased policing, the theory being based on the idea that Latinos are violent and out of control and are therefore "in need of suppression", article on racial profiling. Critics of racial profiling argue that the individual rights of a suspect are violated if race is used as a factor in that suspicion. Notably, article on racial profiling, civil liberties organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union ACLU have labeled racial profiling as a form of discriminationstating, "Discrimination based on race, article on racial profiling, ethnicity, religionnationality or on any other particular identity undermines the basic human rights and freedoms to which every person is entitled.

Conversely, those in opposition of the police tactic employ the teachings of the due process modelarticle on racial profiling, arguing that minorities are not granted equal rights and are thus subject to unjust treatment. The general public internalizes much of its knowledge from the media, relying on sources to convey information of events that transpire outside of their immediate domain. In the case of racial profiling drivers, the ethnic backgrounds of drivers stopped by traffic police in the U.

However, some argue in favor of the "veil of darkness" hypothesis, which states that police are less likely to know the race of a driver before they make a stop at nighttime as opposed to in the daytime.

Referring to the veil of darkness hypothesis, it is suggested that if the race distribution of drivers stopped during the day differs from that of drivers stopped at night, officers are engaging in racial profiling. For example, in one study done by Jeffrey Grogger and Greg Ridgeway, the veil of darkness hypothesis was used to determine whether or not racial profiling in traffic stops occurs in Oakland, California.

The conductors found that there was little evidence of racial profiling in traffic stops made in Oakland. Research through random sampling in the South Tucson, Arizona area has established that immigration authorities sometimes target the residents of barrios with the use of possibly discriminatory policing based on racial profiling. In a recent journal comparing the s to the present, studies have established that when the community criticized police for targeting the black community during traffic stops it received more media coverage and toned down racial profiling.

However, whenever there was a significant lack of media coverage or concern with racial profiling, the amount of arrests and traffic stops for the African-American community would significantly rise again. Plain-clothed detectives were sent to public places such as coffee shops, mosques and parks to observe and record the public sentiment, as well as map locations where potential terrorists could "blend in".

In its 11 years of article on racial profiling, however, the unit did not generate any information leading to a criminal charge.

A series of publications by the Associated Press during —12 gave rise to public pressure to close the unit, and it was finally disbanded in Racial profiling not only occurs on the streets but also in many institutions, article on racial profiling.

Much like the book Famous all over Town where the author Danny Santiago mentions this type of racism throughout the novel. According to Jesper Ryberg's article "Racial Profiling And Criminal Justice" in the Journal of Ethics"It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, article on racial profiling, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a article on racial profiling in favor of racial profiling at all.

NYPD Street cops use racial profiling more often, due to the widespread patterns. They first frisk them to check whether they have enough evidence to be even arrested for the relevant crime. The NYPD has been subject to much criticism for its "stop and frisk" tactics.

The September 11, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon have led to targeting of some Muslims and Middle Easterners as potential terrorists and, according to some, are targeted by the national government through preventive measures similar to those practiced by local law enforcement.

On September 14, article on racial profiling,three days after the September 11th attacksan Indian American motorist and three family members were pulled article on racial profiling and ticketed by a Maryland state trooper because their car had broken taillights.

The trooper interrogated the family, questioned them about their nationality, and asked for proof of citizenship. When the motorist said that their passports were at home, the officer allegedly stated, "You are lying. You are Arabs involved in terrorism. When he discovered a knife in a toolbox, the officer handcuffed the driver and later reported that the driver "wore and carried a butcher knife, a dangerous, deadly weapon, concealed upon and about his person, article on racial profiling.

Upon boarding, he was told that he made the passengers uncomfortable by being on board the plane and was asked to leave. Once off the plane, he wasn't article on racial profiling or questioned any further and the only consolation he was given was a boarding pass for the next flight. He filed a lawsuit on the basis of discrimination against United Airlines.

United Airlines filed a counter motion which was dismissed by a district judge on October 11, In Junethe ACLU announced a settlement between Bayaa article on racial profiling United Airlines who still disputed Bayaa's allegations, but noted that the settlement "was in the best interest of all".

Inmen over sixteen years old who entered the country from twenty-five Middle Eastern countries and North Korea were required to be photographed, fingerprinted, interviewed and have their financial information copied, and had to register again before leaving the country [53] under the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System. No charges of terrorism resulted from the program, and it was deactivated in April In18 young men from the GTA were charged with conspiring to carry out a series of bombings and beheadings, resulting in a swell of media coverage.

Statistical data demonstrates that although policing practices and policies vary widely across the United States, a large disparity between racial groups in regards to article on racial profiling stops and searches exists. However, article on racial profiling, whether this is due to racial profiling or the fact that different races are involved in crime in different rates, is still highly debated.

Based on academic search, various studies have been conducted regarding the existence of racial profiling in traffic and pedestrian stops. For motor vehicle searches, academic research showed that the probability of a successful search is very similar across races. This suggests that police officers are not motivated by racial preferences but by the desire to maximize the probability of a successful search. Similar evidence has been found for pedestrian stops, with identical ratios of stops to arrests for different article on racial profiling. The studies have been published in various Academic Journals aimed towards Academic professionals as well practitioners such as law enforcers.

Some of these journals include, article on racial profiling, Police Quarterly and the Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, so that both sides of the argument are present and evaluated. Of those gathered the most noted study refuting racial profiling was the conducted using the veil of darkness hypothesis stating that it will be difficult, if not impossible, for officers to discern race in the twilight hours.

The results of this study concluded that the ratio of different races stopped by New York cops is about the same for all races tested. Some of the most referenced organizations, who offer evidence on the existence of racial profiling, are The American Civil Liberties Union, which conducted studies in various major U. In a study conducted in Cincinnati, Ohio, it was concluded that "Blacks were between three and five times more likely to a be asked if they were carrying drugs or weapons, b be asked to leave the vehicle, c be searched, article on racial profiling, d have a passenger searched, and e have article on racial profiling vehicle physically searched in a study conducted.

This conclusion was based on the analysis ofrandomly selected, traffic stop police tapes gathered from to A study analyzing data from the Richmond, Virginia Police Department found that African Americans were disproportionately stopped compared to their proportion in the general population, but that they were not searched more often than Whites. The same study found that Whites were more likely than African Americans to be "the subjects of consent searches," and that Whites were more likely to be ticked or arrested than minorities, while minorities were more likely to be warned.

A study found that the percent of speeding drivers who were black as identified by other drivers on the New Jersey Turnpike was very similar to the percent of people pulled over for speeding who were black. A study found article on racial profiling black drivers were more likely to be searched at traffic stops in white neighborhoods, whereas white drivers were more likely to be searched by white officers at stops in black neighborhoods.

As a response to the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson on August 9,the Department of Justice recruited in September a team of criminal justice researchers to study racial bias in law enforcement in five cities and to subsequently devise strategic recommendations.

 

The Myth of Racial Profiling | City Journal Unconscious Racism

 

article on racial profiling

 

An Ohio jury on Friday slapped Oberlin College with an $ million damages penalty for siding with three black students who had claimed they were victims of racial profiling after. Racial profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race on the basis of observed or assumed characteristics or behavior of a racial or ethnic group, rather than on individual suspicion. Racial profiling, however, isn't limited only to an individual's race, but can also be based on the individual's ethnicity, religion, or national origin. Oct 09,  · Racial Profiling in Preschool. By The Editorial Board. Oct. 8, What it suggests is that racial biases are creeping into classrooms filled with 4-year-olds and that schools are effectively Author: The Editorial Board.